An improved Whale Optimization Approach for Effective Data Transmission for IoT Communication


  •   Abidullha Adel

  •   Md Sohel Rana

  •   Nuruzzam Rana

  •   Md Alamin Hosan

  •   Mohammad Akbar Shapoor


Internet of Things (IoT) offers interconnection among several wireless communication devices for the provision of device accessibility and in-built capacity. IoT provides device interaction and provision of advantages capability for networking and socialization with consideration of intermediate devices. Through innovation in technology IoT devices convert cyber environments with hyper-connectivity. IoT communication contains several smart devices such as body sensors, smartphones, tags, electronic gadgets, and so on. IoT communication is involved in the provision of heterogeneous connectivity among devices for the provision of interface and connectivity for enhancing service quality. The data sending among IoT devices is affected by several threats that have an impact on the network’s performance. To overcome the limitation related to IoT communication, it is necessary to develop an appropriate technique for enhancing IoT network communication performance. In this research developed a multi-channel routing approach is adopted in IoT communication. The developed approach utilizes a meta-heuristics approach with probability-based characteristics. For the meta-heuristics approach this research utilizes whale optimization technique combined with probability characteristics for improving the IoT communication performance of the network. The proposed approach utilizes initially constructs the IoT communication path for information sharing and gathering. This path information is identified through the objective function of a meta-heuristic approach. Based on the objective function hoping between the devices is minimized through which data are transmitted in the network. Simulation is performed as a unique proposed approach with a coverage area of 100 meters. For identification of the optimal path in the network, WOA identifies the path of communication through probability function. Comparative analysis of research exhibited that WOA provides significant performance with the identification of optimal value at the range of 1.0746e-78. Further, the proposed probability-based WOA approach significantly improves the performance of the IoT network.

Keywords: The Internet of Things (IoT), Meta-heuristics, Whale Optimization, Multi-path, Optimal path


Z. Sheng, S. Yang, Y. Yu, A. V. Vasilakos, J. A. McCann, and K. K. Leung. A survey on the IETF protocol suite for the internet of things: Standards, challenges, and opportunities. IEEE wireless communications, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 91-98, 2013.

F. Rusek et al. Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities and challenges with very large arrays. IEEE signal processing magazine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40-60, 2012.

O. Raeesi, J. Pirskanen, A. Hazmi, T. Levanen, and M. Valkama, Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 ah and its restricted access window mechanism.In 2014 IEEE international conference on communications workshops (ICC), 2014: IEEE, pp. 460-466.

S. Debroy, S. Bhattacharjee, and M. Chatterjee. Spectrum map and its application in resource management in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 406-419, 2015.

A. A. AlZubi, M. Al-Maitah, and A. Alarifi. A best-fit routing algorithm for non-redundant communication in large-scale IoT based network. Computer Networks, vol. 152, pp. 106-113, 2019.

B. B. Olyaei, J. Pirskanen, O. Raeesi, A. Hazmi, and M. Valkama. Performance comparison between slotted IEEE 802.15. 4 and IEEE 802.1 lah in IoT based applications.In 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2013: IEEE, pp. 332-337.

H. Bogucka, P. Kryszkiewicz, and A. Kliks. Dynamic spectrum aggregation for future 5G communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 35-43, 2015.

K. Mekki, E. Bajic, F. Chaxel, and F. Meyer. A comparative study of LPWAN technologies for large-scale IoT deployment. ICT express, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2019.

M. A. da Cruz, J. J. Rodrigues, A. K. Sangaiah, J. Al-Muhtadi, and V. Korotaev. Performance evaluation of IoT middle ware. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 109, pp. 53-65, 2018.

J. Li, B. N. Silva, M. Diyan, Z. Cao, and K. Han. A clustering based routing algorithm in IoT aware Wireless Mesh Networks. Sustainable cities and society, vol. 40, pp. 657-666, 2018.

D. Chemodanov, F. Esposito, A. Sukhov, P. Calyam, H. Trinh, and Z. Oraibi. AGRA: AI-augmented geographic routing approach for IoT-based incident-supporting applications. Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 92, pp. 1051-1065, 2019.

Z. Han, Y. Li, and J. Li. A novel routing algorithm for IoT cloud based on hash offset tree. Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 86, pp. 456-463, 2018.

L. Calderoni, A. Magnani, and D. Maio. IoT Manager: An open-source IoT framework for smart cities. Journal of Systems Architecture, vol. 98, pp. 413-423, 2019.

S. Jeon and I. Jung. Experimental evaluation of improved IoT middleware for flexible performance and efficient connectivity. Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 70, pp. 61-72, 2018.

S. Mukherjee and G. Biswas. Networking for IoT and applications using existing communication technology. Egyptian Informatics Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 107-127, 2018.

V. Casola, A. De Benedictis, M. Rak, and U. Villano. Toward the automation of threat modeling and risk assessment in IoT systems. Internet of Things, vol. 7, p. 100056, 2019.

M. S. Pour, E. Bou-Harb, K. Varma, N. Neshenko, D. A. Pados, and K.-K. R. Choo. Comprehending the IoT cyber threat landscape: A data dimensionality reduction technique to infer and characterize Internet-scale IoT probing campaigns/ Digital Investigation, vol. 28, pp. S40-S49, 2019.

M. Hasan, M. M. Islam, M. I. I. Zarif, and M. Hashem. Attack and anomaly detection in IoT sensors in IoT sites using machine learning approaches. Internet of Things, vol. 7, p. 100059, 2019.

P. Valerio. Can Sub-1GHz WiFi Solve The IoT Connectivity Issues. The New Global Enterprise, 2014.

B. B. Olyaei, J. Pirskanen, O. Raeesi, A. Hazmi, and M. Valkama. Performance comparison between slotted IEEE 802.15. 4 and IEEE 802.1 lah in IoT based applications. In 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2013: IEEE, pp. 332-337.

L. Monostori et al. Cyber-physical systems in manufacturing. Cirp Annals, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 621-641, 2016.

T. Rault, A. Bouabdallah, and Y. Challal. Energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks: A top-down survey. Computer Networks, vol. 67, pp. 104-122, 2014.

K. Mekki, E. Bajic, F. Chaxel, and F. Meyer. A comparative study of LPWAN technologies for large-scale IoT deployment. ICT express, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2019.

M.-S. Pan and S.-W. Yang. A lightweight and distributed geographic multicast routing protocol for IoT applications. Computer Networks, vol. 112, pp. 95-107, 2017.

J. Huang, Q. Duan, Y. Zhao, Z. Zheng, and W. Wang. Multicast routing for multimedia communications in the Internet of Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 215-224, 2016.

M. Z. Hasan and F. Al-Turjman. Optimizing multipath routing with guaranteed fault tolerance in Internet of Things. IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 17, no. 19, pp. 6463-6473, 2017.

D. Rosário, Z. Zhao, A. Santos, T. Braun, and E. Cerqueira. A beaconless opportunistic routing based on a cross-layer approach for efficient video dissemination in mobile multimedia IoT applications. Computer communications, vol. 45, pp. 21-31, 2014.

M. Ishino, Y. Koizumi, and T. Hasegawa. A routing-based mobility management scheme for IoT devices in wireless mobile networks. IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 2376-2381, 2015.

A. A. Khan, M. H. Rehmani, and M. Reisslein. Requirements, design challenges, and review of routing and MAC protocols for CR-based smart grid systems. IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 206-215, 2017.

J. Zhu, Y. Song, D. Jiang, and H. Song. Multi-armed bandit channel access scheme with cognitive radio technology in wireless sensor networks for the internet of things. IEEE access, vol. 4, pp. 4609-4617, 2016.

F. Al-Turjman. Cognitive routing protocol for disaster-inspired internet of things. Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 92, pp. 1103-1115, 2019.

H. Bogucka, P. Kryszkiewicz, and A. Kliks.Dynamic spectrum aggregation for future 5G communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 35-43, 2015.

Y. Takizawa, Y. Takashima, and N. Adachi. Self-Organizing Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Neighbor Topology. In Proc. IARIA UBICOMM 2013, 2013, pp. 102-108.

S. Huaizhou, R. V. Prasad, E. Onur, and I. Niemegeers. Fairness in wireless networks: Issues, measures and challenges. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5-24, 2013.

W. Rehan, S. Fischer, M. Rehan, and M. H. Rehmani. A comprehensive survey on multichannel routing in wireless sensor networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 95, pp. 1-25, 2017.

O. Iova, P. Picco, T. Istomin, and C. Kiraly. Rpl: The routing standard for the internet of things... or is it? IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 16-22, 2016.

B. P. Santos, O. Goussevskaia, L. F. Vieira, M. A. Vieira, and A. A. Loureiro. Mobile Matrix: Routing under mobility in IoT, IoMT, and Social IoT. d Hoc Networks, vol. 78, pp. 84-98, 2018.

B. Afzal, M. Umair, G. A. Shah, and E. Ahmed. Enabling IoT platforms for social IoT applications: vision, feature mapping, and challenges. Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 92, pp. 718-731, 2019.

L. Atzori, A. Iera, G. Morabito, and M. Nitti. The social internet of things (siot)–when social networks meet the internet of things: Concept, architecture and network characterization. Computer networks, vol. 56, no. 16, pp. 3594-3608, 2012.

O. Gnawali, R. Fonseca, K. Jamieson, M. Kazandjieva, D. Moss, and P. Levis. CTP: An efficient, robust, and reliable collection tree protocol for wireless sensor networks. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN), vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-49, 2013.

B. Peres et al. Matrix: Multihop address allocation and dynamic any-to-any routing for 6LoWPAN. Computer Networks, vol. 140, pp. 28-40, 2018.

D. Johnson, C. Perkins, and J. Arkko. Mobility support in IPv6. ed: RFC 3775, june, 2004.

M. D. Esfahani, A. A. Rahman, and N. H. Zakaria. Green IT/IS adoption as corporate ecological responsiveness: an academic literature review. Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35-43, 2015.

M.-C. Chuang and J.-F. Lee. FH-PMIPv6: A fast handoff scheme in Proxy Mobile IPv6 networks. In 2011International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), 2011: IEEE, pp. 1297-1300.

A. J. Jabir, S. Shamala, and Z. Zuriati. A New Strategy for Signaling Overhead Reduction in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 Protocol. American Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (4): 535-541, 2012

S. H. Chae, W. Choi, J. H. Lee, and T. Q. Quek. Enhanced secrecy in stochastic wireless networks: Artificial noise with secrecy protected zone. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1617-1628, 2014.

P. N. Mahalle, B. Anggorojati, N. R. Prasad, and R. Prasad. Identity authentication and capability based access control (iacac) for the internet of things. Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 309-348, 2013.

M. Henze, B. Wolters, R. Matzutt, T. Zimmermann, and K. Wehrle. Distributed configuration, authorization and management in the cloud-based internet of things. in 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS, 2017: IEEE, pp. 185-192.

T. Pecorella, L. Brilli, and L. Mucchi. The role of physical layer security in IoT: A novel perspective. Information, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 49, 2016.

H. Yu, M. Kaminsky, P. B. Gibbons, and A. Flaxman. Sybilguard: defending against sybil attacks via social networks. In Proceedings of the 2006 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, 2006, pp. 267-278.

J. Mattila. The blockchain phenomenon–the disruptive potential of distributed consensus architectures. ETLA working papers, 2016.

J. Gubbi, R. Buyya, S. Marusic, and M. Palaniswami. Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future generation computer systems, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1645-1660, 2013.

N. Michael and A. Tang. Halo: Hop-by-hop adaptive link-state optimal routing. EEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1862-1875, 2014.

F. J. Rodriguez, S. Fernandez, I. Sanz, M. Moranchel, and E. J. Bueno. Distributed approach for smart grids reconfiguration based on the OSPF routing protocol. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 864-871, 2015.

S. Debroy, S. De, and M. Chatterjee. Contention based multichannel MAC protocol for distributed cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 2749-2762, 2014.

S. Bhattarai, J.-M. J. Park, B. Gao, K. Bian, and W. Lehr. An overview of dynamic spectrum sharing: Ongoing initiatives, challenges, and a roadmap for future research. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 110-128, 2016.

I. Yaqoob et al. Internet of things architecture: Recent advances, taxonomy, requirements, and open challenges. IEEE wireless communications, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 10-16, 2017.

M. Brachmann, O. Garcia-Mochon, S.-L.Keoh, and S. S. Kumar. Security considerations around end-to-end security in the IP-based Internet of things. in Workshop on Smart Object Security, in conjunction with IETF83, Paris, France, March 23, 2012, 2012.

J. M. Mohammed, B.-L. Ong, R. B. Ahmad, and M. Hakawati. Internet of things (IoT) mobility support based on distributed sensor proxy mipv6. Journal of Theoretical & Applied Information Technology, vol. 95, no. 17, 2017.

P. Kamalinejad, C. Mahapatra, Z. Sheng, S. Mirabbasi, V. C. Leung, and Y. L. Guan. Wireless energy harvesting for the Internet of Things. IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 102-108, 2015.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Adel, A., Rana, M.S., Rana, N., Hosan, M.A. and Shapoor, M.A. 2021. An improved Whale Optimization Approach for Effective Data Transmission for IoT Communication. European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 5, 6 (Dec. 2021), 49–57. DOI: