Low Earth Orbit Satellite Attitude Stabilization Using Linear Quadratic Regulator


This study compares the result of the PID controller to the LQR controller when used in the on-orbit stabilization of a satellite in the low earth orbit. The results from the PID controller show that the controller is too weak when used alone as the controller could not stabilize the system after 500 s which is not even allowable in practical application. For the LQR controller, a performance metric was set which is: i. the settling time is to be ≤ 10 seconds, ii. Maximum power consumption ≤ 1.5 Watts and iii. Zero (0) steady-state error / final value. The LQR controller meets system performance by achieving a settling time of roll (peak amplitude=0.26 s, settling time=10.0 s), Pitch (peak amplitude=0.395 s, settling time=5.52 s), Yaw (peak amplitude=0.350 s, settling time=5.52 s) and Total power consumption are 1.26 watt with a maximum torque of 3.22 mNm. Because power consumption and precision are critical in satellite applications, particularly military surveillance satellites. As a result, for an aerospace engineer to achieve their space mission, for instance, space mission like low earth orbit surveillance satellites, flexible solar panels, a high accuracy pointing accuracy, it will be impossible to adopt a PID controller except the engineer is ready for the complexity of design filters and compensators. An LQR design in this study can take care of all this complexity with minimum power consumption.
  1. Xie Y, Huang H, Hu Y, Zhang G. Applications of advanced control methods in spacecraft: progress, challenges, and future prospects. Front. Inf. Technol. Electron. Eng., 2016; 17(9): 841–861. doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1601063.  |   Google Scholar
  2. Marlin CL. Space Race Propaganda: U.S. Coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957. Journal. Q., 1987; 64(2–3): 544–559. doi: 10.1177/107769908706400237.  |   Google Scholar
  3. Kou J, Zhang W. Data-driven modeling for unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 2021; 125: 100725. doi: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2021.100725.  |   Google Scholar
  4. Maini AK, Agrawa V. Satellite Technology: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons; 2011.  |   Google Scholar
  5. Daneshjou K, Mohammadi-Dehabadi AA, Bakhtiari M. Mission planning for on-orbit servicing through multiple servicing satellites: A new approach. Adv. Space Res., 2017; 60(6): 1148–1162. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.05.037.  |   Google Scholar
  6. Gaga A, Diouri O, Ouazzani Jamil M. Design and realization of nano satellite cube for high precision atmosphere measurement. Results Eng., 2022; 14: 100406. doi: 10.1016/j.rineng.2022.100406.  |   Google Scholar
  7. Zanchettin AM, Calloni A, Lovera M. Robust Magnetic Attitude Control of Satellites. IEEEASME Trans. Mechatron., 2013; 18(4): 1259–1268. doi: 10.1109/TMECH.2013.2259843.  |   Google Scholar
  8. Avanzini G, de Angelis EL, Giulietti F, Serrano N. Attitude control of Low Earth Orbit satellites by reaction wheels and magnetic torquers. Acta Astronaut., 2019; 160: 625–634. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.03.013.  |   Google Scholar
  9. Evain H, Alazard D, Rognant M, Solatges T, Brunet A, Mignot J, Rodriguez N, et al. Satellite Attitude Control with a six-Control Moment Gyro Cluster tested under Microgravity Conditions. presented at the International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics 2019 (ISSFD), Feb. 2019, p. 1387. Accessed: Feb. 19, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://hal.science/hal-02166772.  |   Google Scholar
  10. Doupe C, Swenson ED. Optimal Attitude Control of Agile Spacecraft Using Combined Reaction Wheel and Control Moment Gyroscope Arrays, in AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi: 10.2514/6.2016-0675.  |   Google Scholar
  11. Xiao B, Yin S. A Deep Learning Based Data-Driven Thruster Fault Diagnosis Approach for Satellite Attitude Control System. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2021; 68(10): 10162–10170. doi: 10.1109/TIE.2020.3026272.  |   Google Scholar
  12. Pasand M, Hassani A, Ghorbani M. A study of spacecraft reaction thruster configurations for attitude control system. IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., 2017; 32(7): 22–39. doi: 10.1109/MAES.2017.160104.  |   Google Scholar
  13. Narkiewicz J, Sochacki M, Zakrzewski B. Generic Model of a Satellite Attitude Control System. Int. J. Aerosp. Eng., 2020; 2020: 1–17. doi: 10.1155/2020/5352019.  |   Google Scholar
  14. Karata S. A Thesis Submitted To The Graduate School Of Natural And Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, 2016.  |   Google Scholar
  15. Auret J. Design of an aerodynamic attitude control system for a CubeSat. [Thesis]. Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012. Accessed: Feb. 19, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://scholar.sun.ac.za:443/handle/10019.1/19956.  |   Google Scholar
  16. Sidi MJ. Spacecraft Dynamics and Control: A Practical Engineering Approach. Cambridge University Press, 1997.  |   Google Scholar
  17. Wertz JR. Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.  |   Google Scholar
  18. Ouhocine C, Filipski MN, Noor SBM, Ajir MR, Hamzah N. Small Satellite Attitude Control and Simulation. Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia. Jurnal Mekanikal, Jun 2004; 17: 36-47.  |   Google Scholar
  19. Esmaelzadeh Aval R. Lectures on Spacecraft Dynamics & Control 20220620 (In Persian). 2022.  |   Google Scholar
  20. Relvas M, Lourenço P, Batista P. Nonlinear MPC for Attitude Guidance & Control of Autonomous Spacecraft. In (L. Brito Palma, R. Neves-Silva, and L. Gomes, Eds.), Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022, pp. 15–25. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-10047-5_2.  |   Google Scholar
  21. Eze CU, Mbaocha CC, Onojo JO. Design of Linear Quadratic Regulator for the Three-Axis Attitude Control System Stabilization of Microsatellites. 2016; 7(6).  |   Google Scholar
  22. Wisniewski R. Linear Time-Varying Approach to Satellite Attitude Control Using Only Electromagnetic Actuation. J. Guid. Control Dyn., 2000; 23(4): 640–647. doi: 10.2514/2.4609.  |   Google Scholar


Download data is not yet available.

How to Cite

Enejor, E.U., Dahunsi, F.M., Akingbade, K.F. and Nelson, I.O. 2023. Low Earth Orbit Satellite Attitude Stabilization Using Linear Quadratic Regulator. European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 7, 3 (May 2023), 17–29. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejece.2023.7.3.505.

Search Panel

 Emmanuel U. Enejor
 Google Scholar |   EJECE Journal

 Folashade M. Dahunsi
 Google Scholar |   EJECE Journal

 Kayode F. Akingbade
 Google Scholar |   EJECE Journal

 Ibigbami O. Nelson
 Google Scholar |   EJECE Journal