European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/dergi_kapak2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="10"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJECE</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-9853</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Bimonthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">Â&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER -VOL. 2/ ISSUE 7, 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">Â&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 17px; margin: 6px;">SubmitÂ&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejece/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span></a>Â&nbsp;or byÂ&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span> to<br>Â&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Â&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">Â&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> â–ºÂ&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJECE do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>Â&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of ElectricalÂ&nbsp;<strong>Engineering</strong> and Computer Science</strong>Â&nbsp;(EJECE) is a peer-reviewedÂ&nbsp;international journal publishes <strong>bimonthly</strong>Â&nbsp;full-length state-of-the-artÂ&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of <a href="/index.php/ejece/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope">Electrical Engineering and Computer Science</a></strong>.Â&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>Â&nbsp;</strong>EJECE is published by<strong>Â&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>Â&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong>Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">â–ºÂ&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;</strong>Â&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJECE provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for PlagiarismÂ&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJECEhas a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>Â&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/no_plagiarism.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving PolicyÂ&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJECEuses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures the long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;<strong>IndexingÂ&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJECE content is indexed withÂ&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>Â&nbsp;and assigned aÂ&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/zaratushtra/indexing_policy21.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp; Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submission, the editor or editorial assistant sends an e-mail confirmation to the submission’s author within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next, a check for the similarity rate is done using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer review; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymousÂ&nbsp;to authors. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;Â&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.Â&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) DecisionÂ&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decisionÂ&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)Â&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.<span style="background-color: #ffffff;">Â&nbsp;</span></p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start copyediting process, <a href="/index.php/ejece/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>Â&nbsp;must be paid.Â&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step </em>1 :<em>Â&nbsp;Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a<span class="Apple-converted-space">Â&nbsp;</span><a href="">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts<span class="Apple-converted-space">Â&nbsp;</span><a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF Â&nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>Â&nbsp;Â&nbsp;</p> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Science Publishing en-US European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 2736-5751 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their work, and grant this journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> An Integrated Engine Control Unit for a Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engine <p>A stepping valve system has been proposed before and proved to be feasible. The stepping valve move perpendicular to the piston, thereby avoiding piston-valve collisions associated with interference engines. In this study, the proposed Stepping Valve Control Unit, SVCU, was integrated with the conventional Engine Control Unit, ECU, of a simple SI engine. The resulting Integrated Engine Control Unit, IECU, as it is called, simplified the design of the ECU. The integration involved combining the basic fuel injector and sparking controls with the SVCU. The camshaft and crankshaft sensors were replaced by a Piston Direction Sensor, PDS. The PDS is an optical sensor, which works in conjunction with a gray coded trigger wheel to relay information to the IECU. The IECU was simulated using Quartus II design software. The hardware implementation of the IECU was done using EPM7128SL FPGA contained within the UP1 Altera Development Board. The behavior of the IECU was expected.</p> Ishmael Zibani Kelebaone Tsamaase Edwin Matlotse Ibo Ngebani Copyright (c) 2023 Ishmael Zibani, Kelebaone Tsamaase, Edwin Matlotse, Ibo Ngebani 2023-11-06 2023-11-06 7 6 1 5 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.574 Analysis of Electroencephalography (EEG) Electrode-Pair Correlations <p class="Abstract">We measured electroencephalography (EEG) data streams from participants wearing a wireless EEG headset in two modes: eyes open and eyes closed. Then we analyzed the data by computing the correlation coefficients for a pair of electrodes in each measurement mode. We also plotted and visually inspected the associated scatter plots. We observed that for the electrodes selected, the signals were more strongly correlated in the eyes closed mode and relatively weakly correlated in the eyes open mode. In most measurements, the signals were dissimilar. These observations could be harnessed to inform expedient placement of EEG electrodes and efficient selection of data stream channels for further analysis.</p> Frank Edughom Ekpar Felix Anayo Njoku Copyright (c) 2023 Frank Edughom Ekpar, Felix Anayo Njoku 2023-11-06 2023-11-06 7 6 6 10 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.571 Adaptive Demand-Side Management Algorithm for Grid-Integrated PV-Wind-Battery-Hydrogen Systems Using Model Predictive Control <p>Systems for producing green hydrogen will be essential in the move away from fossil fuels and towards technology that produces no carbon emissions. In order to undertake PV-Wind-H2 design for various hybrid configurations, this study provides a novel model for an off-grid hydrogen plant coupled with wind power, solar photovoltaic, and a battery energy storage system. This model makes use of meteorological information as well as component electrical variables. The objectives are to size and operate the systems properly in order to reach production targets while reducing H2 expenses. The direct connection of a PV-Wind-Electrolyser optimises component sizes and hydrogen generation, with the Electrolyser curves determined by the area and number of Electrolyser cells linked to photovoltaic modules. The coupling factor is increased when maximum power point (MPP) tracking is used. However, when compared to optimal PV-Wind-Electrolyser coupling, this gain is minimal. The advantage of battery-assisted electrolysis is that it minimises the size of the electrolyzer, illustrating how easy it is to run it at part loads. As a result, the photovoltaic-Wind and Electrolyzer are bigger to allow H2 generation, but the batteries work much better.</p> Adel Elgammal Tagore Ramlal Copyright (c) 2023 Adel Elgammal, Tagore Ramlal 2023-11-06 2023-11-06 7 6 11 18 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.578 Cluster Head Selection in Device to Device (D2D) Communication Based on Weighted Network Performance Factor <p>In this study, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, Self Organizing Map was utilized to cluster D2D User Equipment using their network values as inputs. A weighting factor referred to as Hardware Sensing Factor (HSF) was formulated to take into account the device’s channel quality and the status of its underlying hardware circuitry. The values of the HSF were used as inputs to cluster the devices and to select cluster head for each cluster. The performance of SOM when HSF was input was compared with the performance when RSSI, RSRP or RSRQ was used as input. The comparison showed that the use of HSF as input to SOM cluster algorithm gave better cluster performance than the use of respective network values such as RSSI, RSRP or RSRQ. In addition, the use of HSF as input data to both SOM and K-Means algorithms showed that SOM cluster formation has better performance than K-Means algorithm.</p> Victor Eze Idigo Ikechukwu Harrison Ezeh Augustine Chukwuemeka Okwudili Azubogu Victor Ndubuisi Okorogu Scholastica Ukamaka Nnebe Copyright (c) 2023 Victor Eze Idigo, Ikechukwu Harrison Ezeh, Augustine Chukwuemeka Okwudili Azubogu, Victor Ndubuisi Okorogu, Scholastica Ukamaka Nnebe 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 7 6 19 26 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.564 Security, Privacy Challenges and Available Countermeasures in Electronic Health Record Systems: A Review <p>Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems have revolutionized the healthcare industry by enabling the efficient storage, retrieval, and sharing of patient health information. However, the widespread adoption of EHR systems has also engendered a myriad of privacy and security challenges that must be spoke to guarantee the privacy, integrity, and accessibility of sensitive patient evidence. A range of countermeasures has been implemented to reduce the risks associated with EHR data privacy and security. These include contact switch tools that limit data access to approved operators, as well as advanced encryption methods like Identity-Based Encryption and Attribute-Based Encryption, specifically tailored for securing EHR data in cloud environments. By employing these protective measures, healthcare providers can enhance the safety of sensitive patient information while adapting to the dynamic digital landscape.</p> Adetayo Folasole Oluwasegun Solomon Adegboye Oluwaseun Isaiah Ekuewa Patience Emanre Eshua Copyright (c) 2023 Adetayo Folasole, Oluwasegun Solomon Adegboye, Oluwaseun Isaiah Ekuewa, Patience Emanre Eshua 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 7 6 27 33 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.561 Analysis of Decoupling Capacitor Performance in Improving Power Integrity in Two Layer/Three Layer Printed Circuit Boards <p>Electronic circuits can only function properly if supplied with clean power. The clean power is only possible if the AC. &amp; D.C. noise in the power supply voltage which is supplied to electronic devices is below tolerance limits. To keep this noise within the limits, the impedance of Power Distribution Network (PDN) should be as minimal as possible. The use of Decoupling Capacitors is the most proven strategy to keep the PDN impedance low. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the performance of PDN of a two-layer and three-layer P.C. Board, for the same set of Decoupling Capacitors. The PDN design has been carried out to meet an assumed set of specifications. The values of Interconnection Inductance have been obtained. The Interconnection Inductance is mostly responsible for PDN impedance, especially at higher frequencies. The simulations have been conducted for the PDN impedance of a two-layer as well as a three-layer P.C. Board. From the simulated impedance profiles, it is evident that PDN impedance obtained for a two-layer P.C. board is almost similar to that of a three-layer one if the width of the power supply trace is suitably tailored. It is therefore more prudent to go for a two-layer PDN configuration considering its simplicity and economy.</p> Rajesh Rehpade Gajanan Kharate Jayant Chopade Copyright (c) 2023 Rajesh Rehpade, Gajanan Kharate, Jayant Chopade 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 7 6 34 37 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.575 Smart Control Solution for Single-Stage Solar PV Systems <p>Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems unpredictable characteristics and tight grid-codes demand power electronic-based energy conversion devices. Hence, as the power levels generated by the solar PV systems rise, multi-level voltage source converters (VSC) and their control mechanisms become more necessary for effective energy conversion. Continuous control set model predictive control (CCS-MPC) is a class of predictive control approach that has emerged recently for the applications of power converters and energy conversion systems. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) based controller for single-stage grid-connected PV is implemented. The CCS-MPC is used as an expert / a teacher to generate the data required for off-line training of the neural network controller. After the off-line training, the trained ANN can fully control the inverter’s output voltage and track the maximum power point (MPP) without the need for MPC during testing. The proposed control technique is assessed under various operating conditions. Based on the results obtained, it is observed that the proposed techniques offer improved objective tracking and comparative dynamic response with respect to the classical approaches.</p> Hyginus Sunday Ugwuanyi Joseph Udokamma Ugwuanyi Copyright (c) 2023 Hyginus Sunday Ugwuanyi, Joseph Udokamma Ugwuanyi 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 7 6 38 45 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.582 New Methods of Simulating Radar Clutter Return Arrays <p>Acquiring and recording clutter return data in a radar station is a crucial approach but a high price must be paid. Simulating various radar clutters through computer operation is an efficient approach and not much price is paid in a radar laboratory nowadays. Based on three common U(0,1) random sources from Fortran, MatLab, and chaotic Logistic programs, we compare their statistics: autocorrelation, cross-correlation, probability densities, etc. Fortran U(0,1) is found to be a better random source for our sake. Based on the study of uniform-and staggered-PRI (pulse repetition interval) waveforms, coherent transmitting and receiving, pulse compression technology, etc., we propose three algorithms, LU matrix decomposition, FIR (finite impulse response) filtering interpolation, and IIR (infinite impulse response) filtering, for simulating range-azimuth clutter arrays, which engage conventional characteristics: uniform or staggered PRIs and Doppler spectra. Their mathematic equations and algorithm computations are described. Many simulation tests are achieved to verify the validity and effectiveness of the algorithms; the clutter arrays with a few radar signal characteristics are demonstrated. Furthermore, through the study of two-type pulse compressions, phase code and LFM (linear frequency modulation), and large time-width pulse wave’s backscattering, we create a mechanism of discrete and continuous dynamical systems forming the pulse compression clutter returns, then simulate the composite clutter arrays, which characterize pulse compression over range cells and the Doppler spectra over azimuth cells with staggered PRIs. Finally, we discuss combination algorithms for nonstationary radar clutter arrays, which have two typical models of nonstationary environments, continuously-varying spectral parameters, and step-varying translation of backscattering regions.</p> Xubao Zhang Copyright (c) 2023 Xubao Zhang 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 7 6 46 57 10.24018/ejece.2023.7.6.560